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stem cell – Medical News Today

knowledge center home stem cell research all about stem cells what are stem cells?

Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources:

Both types are generally characterized by their potency, or potential to differentiate into different cell types (such as skin, muscle, bone, etc.).

Adult or somatic stem cells exist throughout the body after embryonic development and are found inside of different types of tissue. These stem cells have been found in tissues such as the brain, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, and the liver. They remain in a quiescent or non-dividing state for years until activated by disease or tissue injury.

Adult stem cells can divide or self-renew indefinitely, enabling them to generate a range of cell types from the originating organ or even regenerate the entire original organ. It is generally thought that adult stem cells are limited in their ability to differentiate based on their tissue of origin, but there is some evidence to suggest that they can differentiate to become other cell types.

Embryonic stem cells are derived from a four- or five-day-old human embryo that is in the blastocyst phase of development. The embryos are usually extras that have been created in IVF (in vitro fertilization) clinics where several eggs are fertilized in a test tube, but only one is implanted into a woman.

Sexual reproduction begins when a male’s sperm fertilizes a female’s ovum (egg) to form a single cell called a zygote. The single zygote cell then begins a series of divisions, forming 2, 4, 8, 16 cells, etc. After four to six days – before implantation in the uterus – this mass of cells is called a blastocyst. The blastocyst consists of an inner cell mass (embryoblast) and an outer cell mass (trophoblast). The outer cell mass becomes part of the placenta, and the inner cell mass is the group of cells that will differentiate to become all the structures of an adult organism. This latter mass is the source of embryonic stem cells – totipotent cells (cells with total potential to develop into any cell in the body).

In a normal pregnancy, the blastocyst stage continues until implantation of the embryo in the uterus, at which point the embryo is referred to as a fetus. This usually occurs by the end of the 10th week of gestation after all major organs of the body have been created.

However, when extracting embryonic stem cells, the blastocyst stage signals when to isolate stem cells by placing the “inner cell mass” of the blastocyst into a culture dish containing a nutrient-rich broth. Lacking the necessary stimulation to differentiate, they begin to divide and replicate while maintaining their ability to become any cell type in the human body. Eventually, these undifferentiated cells can be stimulated to create specialized cells.

Stem cells are either extracted from adult tissue or from a dividing zygote in a culture dish. Once extracted, scientists place the cells in a controlled culture that prohibits them from further specializing or differentiating but usually allows them to divide and replicate. The process of growing large numbers of embryonic stem cells has been easier than growing large numbers of adult stem cells, but progress is being made for both cell types.

Once stem cells have been allowed to divide and propagate in a controlled culture, the collection of healthy, dividing, and undifferentiated cells is called a stem cell line. These stem cell lines are subsequently managed and shared among researchers. Once under control, the stem cells can be stimulated to specialize as directed by a researcher – a process known as directed differentiation. Embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into more cell types than adult stem cells.

Stem cells are categorized by their potential to differentiate into other types of cells. Embryonic stem cells are the most potent since they must become every type of cell in the body. The full classification includes:

Embryonic stem cells are considered pluripotent instead of totipotent because they do not have the ability to become part of the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.

A video on how stem cells work and develop.

Although there is not complete agreement among scientists of how to identify stem cells, most tests are based on making sure that stem cells are undifferentiated and capable of self-renewal. Tests are often conducted in the laboratory to check for these properties.

One way to identify stem cells in a lab, and the standard procedure for testing bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), is by transplanting one cell to save an individual without HSCs. If the stem cell produces new blood and immune cells, it demonstrates its potency.

Clonogenic assays (a laboratory procedure) can also be employed in vitro to test whether single cells can differentiate and self-renew. Researchers may also inspect cells under a microscope to see if they are healthy and undifferentiated or they may examine chromosomes.

To test whether human embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, scientists allow the cells to differentiate spontaneously in cell culture, manipulate the cells so they will differentiate to form specific cell types, or inject the cells into an immunosuppressed mouse to test for the formation of a teratoma (a benign tumor containing a mixture of differentiated cells).

Scientists and researchers are interested in stem cells for several reasons. Although stem cells do not serve any one function, many have the capacity to serve any function after they are instructed to specialize. Every cell in the body, for example, is derived from first few stem cells formed in the early stages of embryological development. Therefore, stem cells extracted from embryos can be induced to become any desired cell type. This property makes stem cells powerful enough to regenerate damaged tissue under the right conditions.

Tissue regeneration is probably the most important possible application of stem cell research. Currently, organs must be donated and transplanted, but the demand for organs far exceeds supply. Stem cells could potentially be used to grow a particular type of tissue or organ if directed to differentiate in a certain way. Stem cells that lie just beneath the skin, for example, have been used to engineer new skin tissue that can be grafted on to burn victims.

A team of researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital reported in PNAS Early Edition (July 2013 issue) that they were able to create blood vessels in laboratory mice using human stem cells.

The scientists extracted vascular precursor cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells from one group of adults with type 1 diabetes as well as from another group of healthy adults. They were then implanted onto the surface of the brains of the mice.

Within two weeks of implanting the stem cells, networks of blood-perfused vessels had been formed – they lasted for 280 days. These new blood vessels were as good as the adjacent natural ones.

The authors explained that using stem cells to repair or regenerate blood vessels could eventually help treat human patients with cardiovascular and vascular diseases.

Additionally, replacement cells and tissues may be used to treat brain disease such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s by replenishing damaged tissue, bringing back the specialized brain cells that keep unneeded muscles from moving. Embryonic stem cells have recently been directed to differentiate into these types of cells, and so treatments are promising.

Healthy heart cells developed in a laboratory may one day be transplanted into patients with heart disease, repopulating the heart with healthy tissue. Similarly, people with type I diabetes may receive pancreatic cells to replace the insulin-producing cells that have been lost or destroyed by the patient’s own immune system. The only current therapy is a pancreatic transplant, and it is unlikely to occur due to a small supply of pancreases available for transplant.

Adult hematopoietic stem cells found in blood and bone marrow have been used for years to treat diseases such as leukemia, sickle cell anemia, and other immunodeficiencies. These cells are capable of producing all blood cell types, such as red blood cells that carry oxygen to white blood cells that fight disease. Difficulties arise in the extraction of these cells through the use of invasive bone marrow transplants. However hematopoietic stem cells have also been found in the umbilical cord and placenta. This has led some scientists to call for an umbilical cord blood bank to make these powerful cells more easily obtainable and to decrease the chances of a body’s rejecting therapy.

Another reason why stem cell research is being pursued is to develop new drugs. Scientists could measure a drug’s effect on healthy, normal tissue by testing the drug on tissue grown from stem cells rather than testing the drug on human volunteers.

The debates surrounding stem cell research primarily are driven by methods concerning embryonic stem cell research. It was only in 1998 that researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison extracted the first human embryonic stem cells that were able to be kept alive in the laboratory. The main critique of this research is that it required the destruction of a human blastocyst. That is, a fertilized egg was not given the chance to develop into a fully-developed human.

The core of this debate – similar to debates about abortion, for example – centers on the question, “When does life begin?” Many assert that life begins at conception, when the egg is fertilized. It is often argued that the embryo deserves the same status as any other full grown human. Therefore, destroying it (removing the blastocyst to extract stem cells) is akin to murder. Others, in contrast, have identified different points in gestational development that mark the beginning of life – after the development of certain organs or after a certain time period.

People also take issue with the creation of chimeras. A chimera is an organism that has both human and animal cells or tissues. Often in stem cell research, human cells are inserted into animals (like mice or rats) and allowed to develop. This creates the opportunity for researchers to see what happens when stem cells are implanted. Many people, however, object to the creation of an organism that is “part human”.

The stem cell debate has risen to the highest level of courts in several countries. Production of embryonic stem cell lines is illegal in Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, and Ireland, but permitted in Finland, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. In the United States, it is not illegal to work with or create embryonic stem cell lines. However, the debate in the US is about funding, and it is in fact illegal for federal funds to be used to research stem cell lines that were created after August 2001.

Medical News Today is a leading resource for the latest headlines on stem cell research. So, check out our stem cell research news section. You can also sign up to our weekly or daily newsletters to ensure that you stay up-to-date with the latest news.

This stem cells information section was written by Peter Crosta for Medical News Today in September 2008 and was last updated on 19 July 2013. The contents may not be re-produced in any way without the permission of Medical News Today.

Disclaimer: This informational section on Medical News Today is regularly reviewed and updated, and provided for general information purposes only. The materials contained within this guide do not constitute medical or pharmaceutical advice, which should be sought from qualified medical and pharmaceutical advisers.

Please note that although you may feel free to cite and quote this article, it may not be re-produced in full without the permission of Medical News Today. For further details, please view our full terms of use

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TNF inhibitor – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A TNF inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug that suppresses the physiologic response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which is part of the inflammatory response. TNF is involved in autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa and refractory asthma, so TNF inhibitors may be used in their treatment. The important side effects of TNF inhibitors include lymphomas, infections (especially reactivation of latent tuberculosis), congestive heart failure, demyelinating disease, a lupus-like syndrome, induction of auto-antibodies, injection site reactions, and systemic side effects.[1]

The global market for TNF inhibitors in 2008 was $13.5 billion[2] and $22 billion in 2009.[3]

Early experiments associated TNF with the pathogenesis of bacterial sepsis. Thus, the first preclinical studies using anti-TNF antibodies were performed in animal models of sepsis[4] and showed that anti-TNF antibodies protected mice from sepsis. However, subsequent clinical trials in patients with sepsis showed no significant benefit. It wasn’t until 1991 that studies in a transgenic mouse model of overexpressed human TNF provided the pre-clinical rationale for a causal role of TNF in the development of polyarthritis and that anti-TNF treatments could be effective against human arthritides.[5] This was later confirmed in clinical trials[6] and led to the development of the first biological therapies for rheumatoid arthritis.

Inhibition of TNF effects can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab[7] (Remicade), adalimumab (Humira), certolizumab pegol (Cimzia), and golimumab (Simponi), or with a circulating receptor fusion protein such as etanercept (Enbrel).

Thalidomide (Immunoprin) and its derivatives lenalidomide (Revlimid) and pomalidomide (Pomalyst, Imnovid) are also active against TNF.

While most clinically useful TNF inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies, some are simple molecules such as xanthine derivatives[8] (e.g. pentoxifylline)[9] and bupropion.[10] Bupropion is the active ingredient in the smoking cessation aid Zyban and the antidepressants Wellbutrin and Aplenzin.

Several 5-HT2A agonist hallucinogens including (R)-DOI, TCB-2, LSD and LA-SS-Az have unexpectedly also been found to act as potent inhibitors of TNF, with DOI being the most active, showing TNF inhibition in the picomolar range, an order of magnitude more potent than its action as a hallucinogen.[11][12][13]

The role of TNF as a key player in the development of rheumatoid arthritis was originally demonstrated by Kollias and colleagues in proof of principle studies in transgenic animal models.[14][15]

Clinical application of anti-TNF drugs in rheumatoid arthritis was demonstrated by Marc Feldmann and Ravinder N. Maini, who won the 2003 Lasker Award for their work.[16] Anti-TNF compounds help eliminate abnormal B cell activity.[17][18]

Clinical trials regarding the effectiveness of these drugs on hidradenitis suppurativa are ongoing.[19]

The National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued guidelines for the treatment of severe psoriasis using the anti-TNF drugs etanercept (Enbrel) and adalimumab (Humira) as well as the anti-IL12/23 biological treatment ustekinumab (Stelara). In cases where more conventional systemic treatments such as psoralen combined with ultraviolet A treatment (PUVA), methotrexate, and ciclosporin have failed or can not be tolerated, these newer biological agents may be prescribed. Infliximab (Remicade) may be used to treat severe plaque psoriasis if aforementioned treatments fail or can not be tolerated.[20]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration continues to receive reports of a rare cancer of white blood cells (known as Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma or HSTCL), primarily in adolescents and young adults being treated for Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis with TNF blockers, as well as with azathioprine, and/or mercaptopurine.[21]

TNF inhibitors put patients at increased risk of certain opportunistic infections. The FDA has warned about the risk of infection from two bacterial pathogens, Legionella and Listeria. People taking TNF blockers are at increased risk for developing serious infections that may lead to hospitalization or death due to certain bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic opportunistic pathogens.[22]

In patients with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, active tuberculosis (TB) may develop soon after the initiation of treatment with infliximab.[23] Before prescribing a TNF inhibitor, physicians should screen patients for latent tuberculosis. The anti-TNF monoclonal antibody biologics infliximab, golimumab, certolizumab and adalimumab, and the fusion protein etanercept, which are all currently approved by the FDA for human use, have warnings which state that patients should be evaluated for latent TB infection, and if it is detected, preventive treatment should be initiated prior to starting therapy with these medications.dealy the wound healing also may not cause TB

The FDA issued a warning on September 4, 2008, that patients on TNF inhibitors are at increased risk of opportunistic fungal infections such as pulmonary and disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis. They encourage clinicians to consider empiric antifungal therapy in certain circumstances to all patients at risk until the pathogen is identified.[24]

TNF or its effects are inhibited by several natural compounds, including curcumin[25][26][27][28] (a compound present in turmeric), and catechins (in green tea). Activation of cannabinoid CB1 or CB2 receptors by cannabis or Echinacea purpurea also seems to have anti-inflammatory properties through TNF inhibition.[29]

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What Can I Eat If I Have Diabetes

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A great way to get started is with the special meal planning bundle available at shopdiabetes.org.

Learn the best and worst choices from each food group, so youll know what to focus on for meals and snacks.

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Are grains and starchy vegetables good or bad?

Fill half your plate with non-starchy vegetables for a healthy meal.

Protein foods are an important part of a diabetes meal plan. Learn about your best choices.

Dont forget that the beverages you drink can also have an effect on your weight and blood glucose as you work to control your diabetes.

Diabetes touches everyone, and finding a cure is personal and urgent.

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Therapy | definition of therapy by Medical dictionary

therapy [therah-pe] activity therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prescription of and assistance with specific physical, cognitive, social, and spiritual activities to increase the range, frequency, or duration of an individual’s (or group’s) activity. animal-assisted therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of animals to provide affection, attention, diversion, and relaxation. art therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitation of communication through drawings or other art forms. aversion therapy (aversive therapy) a form of behavior therapy that uses aversive conditioning, pairing undesirable behavior or symptoms with unpleasant stimulation in order to reduce or eliminate the behavior of symptoms. The term is sometimes used synonymously with aversive conditioning.

client-centered therapy a form of psychotherapy in which the emphasis is on the patient’s self-discovery, interpretation, conflict resolution, and reorganization of values and life approach, which are enabled by the warm, nondirective, unconditionally accepting support of the therapist, who reflects and clarifies the patient’s discoveries.

cognitive therapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy) a directive form of psychotherapy based on the theory that emotional problems result from distorted attitudes and ways of thinking that can be corrected. Using techniques drawn in part from behavior therapy, the therapist actively seeks to guide the patient in altering or revising negative or erroneous perceptions and attitudes.

1. treatment, usually in a psychiatric treatment center, that emphasizes the provision of an environment and activities appropriate to the patient’s emotional and interpersonal needs.

1. the use of music to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems. Music therapy is used for a wide variety of conditions, including mental disorders, developmental and learning disabilities, Alzheimer’s disease and other conditions related to aging, brain injury, substance abuse, and physical disability. It is also used for the management of acute and chronic pain and for the reduction of stress.

[G. therapeia, medical treatment]

ablation therapy the destruction of small areas of myocardial tissue, usually by application of electrical or chemical energy, in the treatment of some tachyarrhythmias.

antiplatelet therapy the use of platelet-modifying agents to inhibit platelet adhesion or aggregation and so prevent thrombosis, alter the course of atherosclerosis, or prolong vascular graft patency.

art therapy the use of art, the creative process, and patient response to the products created for the treatment of psychiatric and psychologic conditions and for rehabilitation.

behavior therapy a therapeutic approach that focuses on modifying the patient’s observable behavior, rather than on the conflicts and unconscious processes presumed to underlie the behavior.

biological therapy treatment of disease by injection of substances that produce a biological reaction in the organism.

cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy that based on the theory that emotional problems result from distorted attitudes and ways of thinking that can be corrected, the therapist guiding the patient to do so.

convulsive therapy treatment of mental disorders, primarily depression, by induction of convulsions; now it is virtually always by electric shock (electroconvulsive t.) .

dance therapy the therapeutic use of movement to further the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual in the treatment of a variety of social, emotional, cognitive, and physical disorders.

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) a treatment for mental disorders, primarily depression, in which convulsions and loss of consciousness are induced by application of brief pulses of low-voltage alternating current to the brain via scalp electrodes.

endocrine therapy treatment of disease by the use of hormones.

family therapy group therapy of the members of a family, exploring and improving family relationships and processes and thus the mental health of the collective unit and of individual members.

fibrinolytic therapy the use of fibrinolytic agents (e.g., prourokinase) to lyse thrombi in patients with acute peripheral arterial occlusion, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or acute myocardial infarction.

gene therapy manipulation of the genome of an individual to prevent, mask, or lessen the effects of a genetic disorder.

group therapy psychotherapy carried out regularly with a group of patients under the guidance of a group leader, usually a therapist.

massage therapy the manipulation of the soft tissues of the body for the purpose of normalizing them, thereby enhancing health and healing.

milieu therapy treatment, usually in a psychiatric hospital, that emphasizes the provision of an environment and activities appropriate to the patient’s emotional and interpersonal needs.

music therapy the use of music to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems.

occupational therapy the therapeutic use of self-care, work, and play activities to increase function, enhance development, and prevent disabilities.

oral rehydration therapy (ORT) oral administration of a solution of electrolytes and carbohydrates in the treatment of dehydration.

orthomolecular therapy treatment of disease based on the theory that restoration of optimal concentrations of substances normally present in the body, such as vitamins, trace elements, and amino acids, will effect a cure.

photodynamic therapy intravenous administration of hematoporphyrin derivative, which concentrates selectively in metabolically active tumor tissue, followed by exposure of the tumor tissue to red laser light to produce cytotoxic free radicals that destroy hematoporphyrin-containing tissue.

1. treatment by physical means.

2. the health profession concerned with the promotion of health, the prevention of disability, and the evaluation and rehabilitation of patients disabled by pain, disease, or injury, and with treatment by physical therapeutic measures as opposed to medical, surgical, or radiologic measures.

PUVA therapy a form of photochemotherapy for skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo; oral psoralen administration is followed two hours later by exposure to ultraviolet light.

1. treatment to replace deficiencies in body products by administration of natural or synthetic substitutes.

2. treatment that replaces or compensates for a nonfunctioning organ, e.g., hemodialysis.

substitution therapy the administration of a hormone to compensate for glandular deficiency.

thyroid replacement therapy treatment with a preparation of a thyroid hormone.

1. Treatment of illness, injury, or disability.

2. Psychotherapy.

3. Healing power or quality: the therapy of fresh air and sun.

Etymology: Gk, therapeia, treatment

the treatment of any disease or a pathological condition, such as inhalation therapy, which administers various medicines for patients suffering from diseases of the respiratory tract.

[G. therapeia, medical treatment]

n revealing of emotional aspects of a physical dysfunction by simultaneously testing an indicator muscle with its asso-ciated emotional neuromuscular reflex(es).

n.pl in holistic nursing, therapeutic approaches that involve one’s sense of peace and awareness. The patient may use prayer, meditation, quiet contemplation, and imagery.

n.pl in holistic nursing, directed therapeutic ap-proach that involves several con-ventional medicine techniques, such as traditional procedures, medications, and surgery with a specific goal or outcome.

n.pl in Ayurveda, the processes that patients undergo at the end of the day’s treatment that serve to eliminate impurities, which have been loosened during the therapies. See also anu and naruha.

n.pl ap-proaches where expressive arts are employed to promote awareness, healing, and growth.

n.pl therapies such as hypnosis, visual imagery, yoga, relaxation, and meditation, in which the mind and body are used in conjunction to assist or catalyze the healing process.

n.pl therapeutic modalities that involve body postures, breathing, movement, prayer, and/or meditation to facilitate relaxation and awareness of mental, emotional, and spiritual states.

n.pl various traditional and modern herbal treatments and ceremonies used to address physical complaints and psychospiritual maladies.

n.pl techniques that use nature-based animals or plants that reconnect patients to the natural environment and its rhythms to improve and hasten healing and improve quality of life.

n technique in which animals are brought into contact with patients who are recovering; provides touch, builds connection, empathy, and enjoyment.

n therapy that involves treating a patient with nosodes prepared from the patient’s blood sample or a pooled sample from several patients. Occasionally the patient’s blood is mixed with homeopathic potencies before admini-stration. Also called autosanguine therapy.

n therapeutic method that stimulates the patient’s innate ability to heal, as when a healing touch removes blockages or constrictions within the body’s energy flow. Therapy that frees the body to heal itself. See also medicine, natural.

n the use of venom derived from bees for medicinal purposes; used in the treatment of skin, pulmonary, rheumatologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, sensory, psychological, and endocrine conditions. It has also been used to treat bacterial and viral infections; administered by a variety of methods. Persistent nodular lesions and allergic reactions are a concern. Also called therapy, bee venom and BVT.

n branch of psychotherapy that emphasizes modifying specific behaviors. Sessions include analysis of a behavior and devising ways to change it to a more desirable response.

n therapy that uses music to affect nonmusical behavior; developed from behavior modification theory to facilitate social and cognitive learning and operant conditioning.

n pr. a mind-bodyintegrated therapy developed by Gerda Boyesen, a Norwegian physiotherapist; uses a variety of methods such as massage, talking, sensory awareness, and meditation to refresh the body. Also called the Gerda Boyesen technique or biodynamic psychology.

n any healing practice that addresses the patient’s biofield, uses the biofield of the practitioner, or a combination of both. See also biofield, reiki, and therapeutic touch.

n a therapeutic modality that uses the biological response modifier, part of the body’s immune system, to fight disease and infection or to protect from the side effects of other treatments. Also called biological response modifier therapy, biotherapy, BRM therapy, or immunotherapy.

n a dietary system, developed by Keith Block, MD, that recommends 50% to 70% complex carbohydrates, 10% to 25% percent fat, and the remaining percentage as protein in the diet. The primary objective of this regimen is decreasing and subsequently removing dairy, refined sugars, and meat from one’s diet while increasing the number of calories from complex carbohydrates such as vegetables, whole grains, and fruits. Also called BINT.

n form of psychotherapy that holds that emotions are encoded in the body as areas of restriction and tension; movement, breathing, and manual therapy are used to release such emotions.

n a biofeedback therapy in which sensors are placed on the patient’s abdomen and chest to observe and measure the rhythm, location, volume, and rate of airflow by which the patient learns deep abdominal breathing; used for respiratory conditions, hyperventilation, asthma, and anxiety.

n.pr developed by clinical psychologist Dr. Roger Callahan, therapy that draws on specific energy meridian points in a particular progression in order to eliminate the cause of negative emotions, as well as their effects on health.

n an unconventional cancer treatment containing sodium sulfite, potassium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and catechol.

n a treatment for cancer in which embryonic animal cells from tissues or organs corresponding to those with the cancer are injected into the cancer patient, with the understanding that these healthy cells are incorporated into the organ, thus repairing or replacing the cancerous cells. This treatment may have side effects, including infections, serious immune responses to the foreign proteins in the cells, and death. Since 1984 the FDA has banned the importation of all injectable cell-therapy materials. Also called cellular suspensions, cellular therapy, embryonic cell therapy, fresh cell therapy, glandular therapy, live cell therapy, organotherapy, or sicca cell therapy.

n.pr a treatment used for cancer, offered in the Dominican Republic, in which the client is exposed to a donut-shaped magnetic device (with an electromagnetic field weaker than in MRI) that allegedly reduces the cancer burden (i.e., destroys enough cancer cells) so that the immune system can take care of the remainder.

n 1., removal of heavy metals, such as lead, iron, and mercury, through the use of chelating agents, usually given intravenously. 2., the purported removal of heavy metals, plaque, and other toxins through intravenous infusion of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), a synthetic amino acid and chelating agent.

n treatment that seeks to change behavior (i.e., habits) by addressing the underlying beliefs that drive the behaviors. Comparable to and often used in concert with behavioral therapy.

n psychotherapeutic approach used to alter thinking and behavior.

n treatment with lasers made from helium-neon or gallium aluminum arsenide and used to treat a host of neurologic problems including carpal tunnel syndrome, migraines, arthritis, vertigo, and soft tissue injuries. Also called low-level light therapy (LLLT).

n the use of professionally administered whole-bowel enemas combined with analysis of fecal chemistry, evaluation of environmental and psychologic factors in the patient’s life, and regular exercise to maintain bowel health. Based on the belief that the health of the colon is directly related to the health of the whole body and that poor colon health can manifest as a variety of illnesses. Also called colonic hydrotherapy or colonic irrigation.

n treatment of the tissues and fluids of the skull to correct body rhythms and induce self-healing.

n the practice of using one’s hands to assess the rhythms of the tissues and fluids in the skull area and to direct those rhythms into healthful patterns. A version of cranial osteopathy sometimes conducted by nondoctors, including massage therapists and physical therapists.

n the integration of artistic abilities into therapy to alleviate patients’ suffering. Activities include but are not limited to drawing, painting, dancing, poetry writing, singing, and gardening.

n therapeutic use of improvisational music to encourage stimulation and development of musical intelligence, confidence, and self-actualization. Psychodynamic and humanistic theories are often used. Also called Nordoff-Robbins improvisational music therapy.

n the use of quartz crystal energy with a person’s energy to facilitate a cascade of spiritual, mental, emotional, and physical changes simultaneously or following a hierarchy of cure.

n therapy used for the prevention of serious allergic responses, in which the patient is regularly injected with increasing doses of a purified allergen to reduce the sensitivity of the immune system to that allergen.

n.pr method used for cancer treatment that employs substances such as bromocriptine, melatonin, and retinoid solution.

n cancer treatment that aims to stimulate cancer cells beyond their undifferentiated state to differentiate like normal cells to halt their uncontrolled proliferation.

n the use of digitalis glycosides to increase the heart’s rate of contractions and speed. This protocol can decrease the conduction speed of the atrioventricular node and create negative dromotropy, thus leading to heartbeat irregularities.

n technique that employs intravenous transfusions containing disodium EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) to remove minerals, toxins, and other substances from the blood and vessels. No known risks if used properly. Also called chelation.

n treatment system developed by Max Wolf, MD, in the 1930s using orally ingested enzymes derived from animals and plants to address enzyme deficiency and several illnesses.

n treatment of mental and physical conditions through therapeutic interactions (e.g., riding) with horses. Also called hippotherapy, riding therapy, or therapeutic riding. See also therapy, animal-assisted.

n induction of fever for healing purposes using herbal, biological, or mechanical (e.g., hot baths) preparations. Also called pyretotherapy.

n biofeedback therapy in which the rate and force of the pulse are measured and used for controlling anxiety, hyperten-sion, cardiac arrhythmia, and other conditions.

n the use of specific high-frequency oscillations to destroy pathogenic organisms or cancerous cells and restore health. Also called energoinformational therapy or Rife frequency therapy.

n See healing, crystal.

n therapy in which genes are introduced into the patient in order to cure or treat a disease. Also called somatic cell gene therapy.

n.pr an unorthodox anticancer treatment that includes a diet that comprises vegetables and fruits with nutritional supplements, liver extract injections, and coffee enemas.

n.pr a method of humanistic psychotherapy that examines the present emotions of the patient without consideration to the past to gain a new level of self-awareness. Instead of explaining the meaning of these emotions, the therapist works with the patient to elucidate his or her own understanding of these feelings.

n.pr a group-oriented, process-driven form of art therapy created by Janie Rhyne and based on the humanistic Gestalt psychology of Fritz Perls.

n a treatment in which tissue extracts of organs such as spleen, thymus, adrenal glands, or liver are used orally to help with a number of conditions, including asthma, autoimmune diseases, cancer, chronic fatigue, cystic fibrosis, eczema, inflammatory diseases, low white cell count, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other conditions.

n a form of therapy wherein people meet with each other and a therapist in order to interact and discuss their problems.

n use of heat on all or part of the body to encourage hyperemia, increase circulation, facilitate sweating, and relax muscles. Used in sports and rehabilitation medicine and as a cancer treatment.

n a method for treating symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, decreased sexual desire, vaginal dryness, sleep disorders, and mood swings by using estrogen alone or in combination with progestin.

n a subcategory of nature-assisted therapy focused on gardening and horticultural activities for therapeutic benefits.

n a means of enhancing a patient’s ability to recognize, express, and enjoy humor. Used to help patients learn, express anger, relieve tensions, or manage painful emotions. See also therapy, laughter.

n a cancer treatment based on the belief that hypoxia and resulting anaerobic metabolism promote the growth of cancerous cells. In these therapies, the patient is treated with oxygenating agents, such as germanium sesquioxide, hydrogen peroxide, or ozone. Germanium compounds can have lethal nephrotoxicity. Also called bio-oxidative therapy or oxidative therapy.

n the use of heat either systemically or locally.

n psychotherapy based upon the idea that behaviors have their roots in a client’s family dynamics, instinctual drives, childhood development, and genetic traits. Therapy in this vein consists of delving into these areas for information resulting in treatment of disorders.

n.pr a treatment for scotopic sensitivity, a condition of perceptual stress accompanying autism and some learning disorders. In this therapy, the patient wears lenses that have been tinted to a specific color to minimize or eliminate their sensitivity.

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Therapy | definition of therapy by Medical dictionary

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Diabetes – Mississippi State Department of Health

Diabetes is serious, controllable and preventable.

In 2012, Mississippi ranked second in the nation for overall diabetes prevalence, with over 276,000 adult Mississippians having type 2 diabetes (over 12.5% of the adult population).

Four of every 1,000 Mississippi deaths were from diabetes in 2012, accounting for 1,039 total deaths. In addition, many more Mississippians live with the complications of type 2 diabetes, including lower extremity amputations, end stage renal disease, blindness, loss of protective sensation, heart disease and premature death.

Diabetes is preventable. Learn more below about your risk for developing type 2 diabetes and the small steps you can take to delay or prevent the disease and live a longer, healthier life.

Diabetes is an incurable disease that affects the way the body uses food. Diabetes causes glucose levels in the blood to be too high. Normally, during digestion the body changes sugars, starches, and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Glucose is carried to the body’s cells and, with the help of insulin (a hormone), is converted into energy. In healthy people, blood glucose levels are kept within normal ranges by proper insulin function.

People develop type 2 diabetes because the cells in the muscles, liver, and fat do not use insulin properly. As a result, the amount of sugar in the blood increases, while the cells are starved of energy. Over time, high blood sugar damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, nerve problems, gum infections, and amputation.

Yes. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) found that moderate diet and exercise that results in 5 to 7 percent weight loss can delay and possibly prevent type 2 Diabetes.

Pre-diabetes simply means that one is at risk for getting type 2 diabetes and heart disease. If your blood sugar level is higher than normal but lower than the diabetes range, then you have pre-diabetes. The good news is you can reduce the risk of getting diabetes and even return to normal blood sugar levels. With modest weight loss and moderate physical activity, you can delay or prevent type 2 diabetes. Learn more

The Mississippi State Department of Health is creating partnerships for diabetes education, prevention and management. The details are in our state Diabetes Action Plan.

African-Americans are 77 percent more likely than whites to be diagnosed with diabetes, and one in four African-American women older than 55 has diabetes.

African-Americans with diabetes are also more likely to experience complications from the disease. As of 2009, more than 12% of all African-Americans ages 20 and older have been diagnosed with diabetes.

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On average, Hispanics are 66 percent more likely to have diagnosed diabetes as whites. Among Mexican-Americans, the largest Hispanic subgroup, the risk is even higher, at 87%. As of 2009, more than 2 million Hispanic adults (11.8% of the adult population) have diabetes.

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The MSDH Diabetes Prevention and Control Program works to prevent diabetes in the state, and to reduce the lifestyle and other factors that contribute to diabetes.

On-line resources

Organizations

Data

Print resources

Printed materials can be requested through the Diabetes Prevention and Control Program.

MSDH Diabetes Prevention and Control Program 570 East Woodrow Wilson Drive Jackson, MS 39216 Phone: 601-206-1559

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